Ancient Rome|200 BCE-300 CE

Urban architecture started in the Hellenistic period and ancient Rome architecture was impressed that period. To represent spiritual and political ideas, the buildings were created by the foremost of the traditional cultures. Romans conquered many different cultures like Mediterranean, Southwest Asia and Europe. So, they created an architectural approach to produce the Roman method of life with constructs like temples, theatres, markets, baths, aqueducts, columned streets, triumphal arches and collonaded plazas.

Roman folks were typically most popular to measure from conquered land with using architectural approaches to regulate and show them their powers. Their architects created a new kind of town that had large public areas. Roman architecture was for the technology of arches and vaults. Actually, due to the strength of pozzolana cement, they made many varieties of arches and vaults and at the side of that, they achieved to supply large-scale buildings.

Roman generals settled conquered lands using architectural comes to emphasise the power of the empire. They took their models from Hellenistic cities that created grand collonaded enclosures. Romans added to them a brand new architectural repertoire of vaulted interiors. Their architects designed a brand new kind of town and that they centred on public areas. Romans improved the conquered people’s quality of life, and equitable system, roads, markets, public baths and theatres.

Roman engineers used arches, vaults and also the new technology of concrete construction. They conjointly overcame the irregularities of the parcel of land. immense and complex structures made up of standard units that extended the strict discipline of the Roman army to civil design.

During Rome’s initial 2 centuries, kings dominated it and that they borrowed legal codes, spiritual practices and architecture from the Etruscan culture that was additional developed. Etruscan architects brought with them the technology of arches and vaults whereas used for works because of the arched gateways of Perugia and Volterra. Romans learned orthogonal urban design from Greek colonies and also the Etruscans. once topography was permissible, Roman planners typically founded their cities on a cross-axis of streets. within the mature cities of the eastern Mediterranean like Athens and Alexandria, Roman governors enriched the present fabric with new building techniques like basilicas, collonaded streets, vaulted thermal baths and separate theatres.

The Romans additionally designed halls, that are theatres and baths, for socialization, pleasure, and hygiene, while not strict proportions. For the final Pompey, the primary permanent theatre was built in Rome in 62 BCE, that had a little temple in it and whose sitting places organized in a very inclined hemicycle method.

The Romans devised the amphitheatre as a brand new kind of theatre for the gladiator’s battles associated animal versus men events (venationes) and that they shaped it by connection two theatres end to finish so they produce an ellipse. At that time, The colosseum in Rome was the superb place of landscape and also the largest building of the empire (in terms of mass).

The Greek City-State|700-200 BCE

Ancient Greek architecture claims that their architecture is a source of Western civilization because of the source of classicism. each system of proportional composition and repertoire of decoration are two of the foremost necessary components for classical architecture. sculpted columns, entablatures, and pediments may be given as an example for the repertoire of decoration. although all cultures were impressed by previous generations to create styles, the artistic style of the Greeks has been revived by a spread of cultures.

Ancient Greek architecture claims that their architecture is a source of Western civilization because of the source of classicism. each system of proportional composition and repertoire of decoration are two of the foremost necessary components for classical architecture. sculpted columns, entablatures, and pediments may be given as an example for the repertoire of decoration. although all cultures were impressed by previous generations to create styles, the artistic style of the Greeks has been revived by a spread of cultures.

Athens is the main town that made architectural works. The Agora was at the base of the acropolis. it had been an area wherever all Athenian men were able to discuss. Agora had a lot of necessary role in town affairs than acropolis. Reason of this case is that the importance of democracy in Greece. several roads additionally connected to Agora as a result of its alternative functions.
The agora, the classical temple and also the Greek theatre represented the main urban ingredients for brand new cities that colonists founding. They added a normative grid that was organized in horizontal bands for dividing the land, form the structure of the town.

As the Athenian government developed, they required new building varieties. These varieties include Prytaneion (city hall), Skias (dining hall for the members of the senate), Strategic(chamber for military) and Bouleuterion (senate house).

Parts that enclosed the Agora were stoas. A stoa maybe a semi-open building with columns. it had been designed to be accessible by everybody. This quality of stoas show the importance of equal accessibility in Greece, that is expounded to the importance of democracy.

In Miletus town had three grids with totally different sizes. The landscape was the main reason for it. space in between the grids had several buildings with varied proportions. In Priene town is made by standard units. The landscape contains a slope and it adds dynamism to town.

Houses within the colonies were conjointly standardized. It helps us perceive the importance of equality in their society. Best samples of this approach to town planning may be found in Olynthus. the homes were referred to as Oikos. Their rooms had no specific functions except for the andron. House itself is gathered around a veranda with columns. The court is connected to rooms with a stoa like structure.

Temples were the main attraction purpose of the cities. they’re designed to own impressive facades that are shaped by columns or have special relations to the landscape. All of the temples have some repetitive components and designs, like columns, pediments, friezes etc. The main variation between them was created through column varieties. Ancient Greeks used 3 column orders that differentiated temples in terms of proportions; Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.

The Athenians rebuilt the colony of Miletus once its destruction throughout the Persian Wars. In Miletus, the Greeks used a grid for its previous material. The new plan set three otherwise sized grids over the irregular parcel of three sea-side promontories. Priene, additionally another colony on the Sonia coast and it had been rebuilt with a tightly integrated set up. All spaces were situated into a staggered pattern inside the geometry of normal blocks. The sloping topography of Priene provided a series of dynamic oblique relationships between elements. solely the walls and also the stadium stony-broke the orthogonal pattern. Moreover, Olynthus, a northern Greek town restored with the associate orthogonal plan. the everyday Oikos appeared a rationalization of tradition homes found in older Greek cities.

Biblical Jerusalem|1500-700 BC

Many cultures with success survived in earlier period throughout their periods however the urban artefacts of them couldn’t survive and their memories additionally disappeared. Even though these cultures or cities had played a large role in history as a result of lack of surviving built and memory these territories these days have little to indicate.

Jerusalem is the oldest town that humanity is living in. Several historical facts concerning religions, society and traditions created that territory enormously special for humanity. The folks that were from every religion wanted to feature that region to their territory however town is underneath the control of Jewish folks. Most are expected that town contains several historical facts concerning the architecture. However, there aren’t too many ancient samples that are about to guide us concerning the traditional design. Basically, inhabitants were seminomadic thus, usage of tent and tabernacles were common preferences. This means that there have been not several constructs or temples. The habitants were gathered by the common belief so; the town was simply made of the common ideas.

Jewish political mechanism of alliances, intermarriages and cultural exchanges secured wealth. Thanks to that wealthy condition, the numerous temple for humanity and additionally history of architecture was wanted to build within the amount of David who was the king of the town. but he couldn’t as a result of the seminomadic life, there has been some lack of bailiwick ideas and knowledge. Also, in some sources, folks explained that David was too authoritarian, barbarian. as a result of that, God failed to need to make the temple from David through his dreams. However, the male monarch who was the son of David did his father wishes.

The process of building this temple damaged the state’s economy. however, it had been half natural, half human-made, unalterable urban reality and it became a monumental architecture. as a result of the economic issues and therefore Solomon’s behaviours, the state began to disintegrate. Therefore, the first Temple was destroyed completely by Neo-Babylonians. The Second Temple was engineered desperately around 535 BCE. Also, this temple was damaged by a number of generations once its completion.

600-800 AD

Islam began within the southern fringe of the Arabian Desert wherever seminomadic settlements were in. The religion was simple to understand for everybody. It appeared to be non-hierarchical and there was tolerant of variations, therefore, It gained wide approval. Additionally, Islam was developed by the Prophet Muhammad teachings.

The mosque was designed as a multi columned hall to supply space for collective religious rituals and a slender tower that known as the tower was built for muezzins who decision the trustworthy to prayer. They provided the new non-secular focus of the cities beneath the Islamic rules; additionally, add a new vertical axis to the urban skyline.

As for the place of worship of this new religion, the mosque was a multi columned prayer hall. Its main differentiation, similarly as an iconic architectural component of Muslim architecture, was the slender towers known as minarets that add a new axis to town skylines. Early Muslim cities were nearly as orderly as Roman military camps, however as time passed the urbanization method took the type of patchworks of neighbourhoods while not open public spaces or main streets, known as hearts, particularly in cities like Damascus or national capital. However, this disorder didn’t damage the general unity an sense of order created by the overall orientation towards Kaaba in Mecca, referred to as Kibla.

Mecca and Medina are two key cities of Islam, for their role within the birth of Islam are more than important. These two cities were located within the cooler Hejaz region of the Arabian Desert, that was a sparsely settled region with mobile culture. Mecca was a cult website long before it became the heart of Muslim culture. it had been a holy region for the nomadic Arab tribes because of Kaaba, a cube formed granite house. when the initial rejection of his new religion, Muhammad was forced to go away Mecca in 622, to spend his next ten years in exile in Medina. when several battles he conquered Mecca and turned Kaaba into a symbol of unity for Muslim society.

Drawing of Izohips in Plan

Me and Ipek draw the isohips of sitea pair of as plan update clusterwithin the studio. The lines are passing by every 50cm on the site. we tend toadditionally draw the road and walkway details. The model’s dimensions are attending to be 1m x 2m.

We ‘ve used the plan drawing that we tend to had taken from the municipality. there were points of every level. we tend tosorted the lines of topography by 50 cm. range by colours. Then we tend to connected the dots that belong to a similarvary of height. Then we tend tojuxtaposed the topography lines we’ve drawn with the realm we got.

And finally I made the sketchupta 3D.

600-800 vs Modern Architecture

Baghdad of Al Mansour vs Apple Park

The element in the middle of the structure brings different features within the two. Baghdad of Al Mansour was also used for religious rituals. But in the Apple Park there was an ornamental pool made for relaxation.

The Baghdad of Al Mansour was also built for security purposes and a ditch was dug out of the wall. Apple Park can also see the round shape in the same function. The round shape was also shown as an important part of campus security (better environmental control) and improvement of internal circulation.

https://www.archdaily.com/160044/more-about-foster-partners-new-apple-campus-in-cupertino

Pagoda vs New Art Museum

https://www.archdaily.com/70822/new-art-museum-sanaa